Question Answer
mammals: marking and defending their territory. Territoriality
fertilization occurs immediately after population, arrested after 1st week or 2nd. Embryonic diapause
know bone parts. Skeleton
helps regulate heat loss from exposed areas. Countercurrent heat exchange
can store sperm for up to 2 months. Delayed fertilization
1-7 = cervical
1-12 = thoracic
1-5 = lumbar
sacrum – coccyx
Vertebral regions
females undergo when behavioral & physical siseptive to mate. Estrus cycle
length of time it takes the young to develop inside female. 20 days – 19 months. Gestation period
gap in teeth. Diastema
scent glands. Musk
different teeth. Heterodont
Keratin, protein. Claws Made of? Macromolecule?
human: 2*1*2*3
Beavers: 1*0*1*3
Dental Formula
sweat, salt & water. Sudoriferous
hard & soft. Breath while we eat. Secondary palate advantage
hair Pelage
Insizers, canines, pre-molars, molars. 4 kinds of teeth
oil Sebaceous
female mammals, means milk. Mammary
warm-blooded, hair, live birth. 3 traits of mammals
(Ex. Brown Headed cow bird) Sympatric speciation. Makes other species take care of eggs. Brood parasites
Eyes detect UV Rays or cloudy day. Sun Compass
Birds Class Aves
Birds pickup ants and rubs on feathers, because they have (formic acid) that is deadly to mites. Anting
Hollow not completely. Humerus structure of birds
mostly in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southern Hemisphere
breeding v. Wintering area
Their lively at hatching they are ready to go. Precocial
wing & tail feathers Ex. flight feathers, tips of wings. Ex. contour feathers, base of flight feathers, streamlining. Pennaceous feathers & examples
water bird oil glands
In legs, help stay on branch while sleeping. perching tendon
navigation for birds, for migration. magnetic compass
helpless little baby, no feathers. Altricial
thin, wispy like, warm feathers. Ex. down feathers. Plumaceous feathers & example
First down feathers – regular feathers – post – juvenile molt- (tall) adult feathers. prenuctual feathers (breeding -post nuctual feathers. Molting cycle
Wings: posterior(small point). anterior – (circle end). Wings: anterior to posterior.
air rushes fast over. Wings: upper surface
Increase lift. Angle of attack
recovery stroke, cuts through air. Upstroke: distal edge
Through esophagus to stomach. Proventriculus secretes gastric juices for digestion. Ventriculus is gizzard. To intestines to cloaca, where waste passes out. Digestive pathway
one partner Ex. swans Monogamous & example
air gets cupped. ventral/concaid, high pressure Wings: lower surface
small feathers on front wings, direct air over back. Alula
expands tail out to decend. Tail movements
cycle one: inhale. air comes through bronches – abdominal sacs – start of lungs, (parabronchi) Exhale: through middle of lungs. Cycle two: inhale. end of parabronchi – inflates thoracic sacs. Exhale: out thoracic sacs. Gas exchange cycles
multiple females, turkeys. Polygynous & example
pushes up, caused by shape of wing. Lift
powerstroke, cups air. wing tips cups down. Downstroke: distal edge
gliding – cranes, stationary wings.
flapping – cardinal, up & down.
soaring – tilting, eagle.
hovering: quick flaps frontward & back. humming bird.
4 flight patterns & examples
binocular: eyes on front of face. better depth perception. monocular: eyes on sides of face. Binocular & monocular vision
multiple males, females are bigger. Spotted sandpiper. Polyandrous & example
What is the vector (animal that transmits) African sleeping sickness? Tsetse fly
Photosynthetic protozoan with flagella. phytoflagellated
doesn't require oxygen Aneorobic
outer layer of mollusk. Secretes shell material Mantle
beef tapeworm – In human and cattle. Taeniarhynchus saginatus
Repeating segments of a worms body. Adds below neck. proglottid
It goes through snails. By skin contact. How do people aquire blood flukes?
Undercooked fish How do people acquire Chinese liver fluke?
sheep liver flukes Fasciola hepatica
organism formed from budding Zooid
Chordata Human phylum
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei
Type of Hydrogenosome Trichomonas vaginalis
Excavata, Amoebozoa, Rhizaria, Chromalveolata 4 supergroups of Protozoa
bread fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum
hooks used to attach to the intestines Scolex
blood flukes Schistosomes
undercooked fish, affects liver Clororchis sinesis
have one form Monogenetic
aquatic predator worms, covered in cilia. Turbellaria: Describe the animals found in this class
false foot pseodopod
Heterotrophic protozoan with flagella zooflagellated
causes giardia, Aneorobic. giardia intestinalis
180 degree twist. Helps but head and feet next to each other. Torsion
long flat worms, Proboscis Example animal from phylum Nemertea
pork tapeworm Taenia solium
All parasites, tapeworms Class Cestoidea
snails, fish What two animals are hosts of the Chinese liver fluke?
ectoparasitic fluke on fish. Class Monogenea
Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm. Three layers of a triblastic animal
Cycleophora – mouths of lobsters Newest phylum? Lives where?
food & defense Purpose of nematocyst
Two planes, Ex, humans bilateral symmetry
K,P,C,O,F,G,S Levels of scientific classification
Osmosis, state of tissue tone or tension. Tonicity in which water moves into protist
mouth of protist Cytopharynx
Ectoderm, Endoderm 2 layers of a diploblastic animal
Ex. of Apicomplexa, malaria plasmodium
Ex. of Entamoebida – unsanitary crowded condition Entamoeba histolytica causes this
Ex. of Apicomplexa. In cat feces. Toxoplasma
the way we classify organisms. Taxonomy
Eating water crest How do people acquire sheep liver flukes?
Superior. 3 domains: Eubacteria, Asschaea, & Eukarya. Domains in relation to kingdoms
small flat worms, bilateral symmetrical Acoelomorpha: Describe the animals in this phylum
Inner layer of cytoplasm Endoplasm
transports to mitochondria or Lysosomes Food vacuole
splitting int. two binary fission
Ameba, not symmetrical Asymmetry
Phylum Ctenophora Sea walnuts
Alternation of generations 2 body forms is called this
lid displaced upon discharge on a nematocyst. Operculum
Plasmodium. Through mosquitos. Transmits malaria
hairlike projections that move the cell Cilia
How species have changed over time phylogeny
outer layer, under plasma membrane Pellicle
Takes in water. Entering through osmosis Contractile vacuole
After food vacuole is used. Egestion vacuole
Splits, but new protist is smaller Budding
Jellyfish, vertical, one plane Radial symmetry
Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies
A phylum that deals with reefs. Cnidaria
F.R. Apicomplexa resists cloronation, affects AIDS patients. Cryptosporidium
Reefs, Hydrozoa freshwater Cnidarian
A phylum that deals with sponges Porifera
mammalia Human class
outer layer of cytoplasm Ectoplasm
chitin Exoskeleton material
specialized body region of arthropods. Tagmata
swelling caused by Wucheria Elephantiasis
caused by the pork worm Trichinosis
skin contact. In southern U.S. through feet, between toes. New World Hookworm transmittal & range
Pin worms. lower part of intestines. Ingesting feces. Enterobius vermicularis
Round worms Phylum Nematoda
Jet perpulsions Cephalopoda movement
process from immature to adult. Caterpillar to butterfly. metamorphosis
Carbohydrate. Polysaccharide. Chitin macromolecule
Arthropoda Spider phylum
Pinchers Chelicerae
start in ocean, and come up at night Krill migration
Lyme Disease & Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Diseases from ticks
Frame silk: outsides radial threads: spokes catching spiral: middle Silk types in web
hard shell Carapace
walking legs: for movement. Mouth: eats. Carapace: Hard shell. Genital operculum: lid covering. Gill operculum: covers the gills. Book gills: look like pages in book. Telson: tail. Horseshoe crab diagram and parts
A way that spiders, scorpions, ticks, or mites get rid of wastes. Malpighian tubules
eggs develop outside the body. Ex. spiders & turtles Oviparous
Most common fossil Trilobite
Animalia Kingdom we're studying
9-13, the walking legs on crayfish Pereopods
attaches the prosoma to opisthosoma. Usually spiders pedicel
sticky, elastic, stronger than Kevlar, made of protein. Properties of silk
directs where web goes spinnerets
Lid that opens upon discharge of nematocyst. Operculum
sensory receptors Sensilla
Chelicerae: 1st pair. Pedipalps: 2nd pair. walking legs: walking. stinging tail: venom. median eye: towards middle. lateral eye: away from middle. sensilla: sensory receptors. Prosoma: Front. Opisthosoma: back. pre & post abdomen. Scorpion diagram
Cephalothorax:head & thorax.Abdomen:stomach area.1st & 2nd Append:1st & 2nd antena.3rd append:mandables.4th & 5th:1st & 2nd Maxilla.Maxilliped:food hand. & sensory 6-8 Pereopods:9-13 for walking legs.Gills:where append. meets body.Thoracic appen:pinchers. Shrimp diagram
(continued) Pleopods: Last append. except for last 2. Telson: tail area. (conti) Shrimp diagram
Live birth, egg supplies nutrients for the body. Ovoviparous
towards the front. prosoma
2nd pair. Pedipalps
Appendages except for last two. Pleopods
Arachnida Spider class
food handling & sensory – pairs 6-8 Maxillipeds
black widow – red hourglass. brown recluse – violin shape mark. poisonous spiders in area & their markings
Eyes, Chelicarae, Pedipalps, prosoma, opisthosoma, pedicel,back lung slit, abdomen, spiracle, spinnerets Spider diagram
live birth. mother provides nutrients. Ex. humans Viviparous
female will release pheromones to attract a mate. Horseshoe crab mating
dances front to back. male drops sperm sac then forces the female on it. Scorpion mating
tail Telson
Horseshoe crabs Class Merostomata species
towards the back Opisthosoma
last 2 appendages on tail. Ex. crayfish, shrimp. Uropod
outer skeleton Exoskeleton
horse hair worms, gordian phylum nematomorpha
transported by mosquitos. causes Filariasis. In blood vessels. In lymphatic system causes elephantitus heartworms in dogs filarial worms. Wucheria
Pork worm. uncooked pork. causes trichinosis Trichinella spiralis
ingesting feces. lower part of intestines Pinworm transmittal
roundworm of humans. ingesting feces. small intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides
reproductive sac on worms Clittelum
worms Phylum Annelida
clams, oysters. (two sides of its shells) Bivalve species
chemical smell to attract a mate Pheromones
Babies (newly hatched) for insects Larva
mosquitos Wucheria vector
rodents & pigs Porkworm vector
New World Hookworm southern U.S. small intestine. through skin contact Necator americanus
segments on its body Metamerism
ingesting feces Roundworm of humans transmittal
squids & octopus's. Jet perpulsion capture prey with tentacles. Class Cephalopoda
Leeches Hirudinea
molting Ecdysis
with pseudopod Ameoba locomotion, and made of?
Arthropoda Crab phylum
Arthropoda sub: Myripoda Millipede Phylum
Annelida Leech phylum
4x Scanning objective
smaller knob Fine Adjustment Knob
only fine adjustment Which adjustment(s) with high-power objective?
Phenotypic ratio Appearance
Louse nit eggs from lice. glue to hair
butterfly phylum Arthropoda
Spider phylum Arthropoda
stage where organism is placed to be observed on microscope
Which adjustment(s) with scanning objective? course & fine
Shannon-Weiner score comparisons The higher the score, the more dense the area is with organisms.
Dichotomous means? divides in two
Earthworm phylum Annelida
Clam phylum Mollusca
Earthworm bristles setae
High-power objective 400x use only fine adjustment
longest objective 400x, high power use only fine
Biodiversity variety of life or species
Squid phylum Mollusca
Coral phylum Cnidaria
Hydra phylum Cnidaria
Contractile vacuole takes this in water
Course adjustment knob big knob. only for low power
Which adjustment(s) with low-power objective? course & fine adjustment
Genotypic ratio not appearance. 2:1:1
Octopus phylum Mollusca
Worm phylum Annelida
Earthworm reaction to light goes away from light
field of view the area through a microscope that you can see
first objective when viewing slide scanning
Shannon-Weiner is what? test to measure diversity
How to use a dichotomous key start on #1 and read carefully. Then examine the organism. Choose which step is right and follow that step. Keep going until you get to an end.
Jellyfish phylum Cnidaria
Sea Anemone phylum Cnidaria
Hermaphrodite both male & female in one.
Low-power objective 100x, use cause & fine adjustment
Built-in scope magnification 10x
Kleenex on lens? never
Chewing louse vs. sucking louse chewing louse = wide mouth. sucking louse = narrow mouth.
Class Chilopoda Centipedes
Order Lepidoptera Moths, butterflies
Class Diplopoda Millepedes
Order Trichoptera Caddis Flies
Order Coleoptera Beetles
Class Insecta Insects
Order Mantodea Mantids
Phylum Arthopoda ants, crabs, spiders
Order Hymenoptera Ants, bees, wasps
Order Blattaria Cockroaches
Order Diptera Flies
Order Plecoptera stone flies
Order Ephemeroptera mayflies
Order Orthoptera grasshoppers, crickets, katydids
Order Odonata Dragon flies, damselflies
Order Isoptera Termites
Order Siphonaptera Fleas
Order Phthiraptera Sucking & chewing lice
Diseases transmitted by insects malaria, lyme disease, african sleeping sickness, babonic plague.
Tympanic organ thin membrane over air sac. picks up vibrations, like drums
Mouths of butterflies, mosquitoes, flies narrow, for sucking
Trailing pheromone & example helps other members of a colony to identify location & quantity of food by one member of a colony. (termites)
Holometabolous radical change, butterfly. reduces competition.
Central disk area in middle of starfish.
Class Asteroidea starfish
Aristotle's lantern chewing apparatus expelled from mouth. 35 ossicles to cut food.
Protandry makes males & releases first, then releases females.
Stalk where a sea lilie attaches to a substrate.
Lateral line filled with and purpose vibrations in water
Class Petromyzontida lampreys
2 fish adaptations for swimming uses pelvic fins, bones & tissues are less dense.
Subphylum Cephalochordata species lancelets
Class Crinoidea sea lillies & feather stars
Hemimetabolous immature gradually takes adult form
Chordata symmetry bilateral
Osteichthyes bony fish, 24,000 species
Fish muscle arrangement undulate posteriorly
Class Sarcopterygii lungfish
Lamprey's mouth & saliva teeth line mouth tongue wears away at scale. saliva has anticoajulate
3 parts of insect thorax prothorax, mesothorax, zetathorax
Sea urchin feeding pathway Food enters tube feet, aristotles lantern, mouth cavity, pharynx, esophagus, intestines, anus
Atrial siphon opening for excurrent water, out.
Stolons root like extensions of tunic
Parts of a lancelet notochord, oral hood, cirri, pharangeal slits, midgut cecum, atrium, atriospore, dorsal & caudal fin.
lamprey life cycle male make depresion.Fmale go by nest.attach to rock.male attach to fmale.wraps body around.Fmale shed eggs.he fertilizes.cover depression w/sand.Parents die.3 wks pass, eggs hatch.Larva filter feed for 3-7 yrs metamorphosis/special mouth.travel to sea to
Lungfish adaptation can survive 6 months in mud.
Fish circulatory system pathway deoxygenated blood comes in. go to atrium next, then to ventrical. to conus arteriosis.to ventral aorta.to vessels called afferent brachial arteries. to gills. to gill capillaries. oxygen gets in. to efferent brachial arteries. to dorsal aorta. to body.
Nephrons filters toxins in kidneys of fish.
Thermo-regulation regulating body temperature
Cryptic coloration in insects camoflauge. moths that look like bark.
Specific benefits of flight getting food, migrating easier, getting away, breeding purposes, invading new habitats
Caste-regulating pheromone & example used by social insects to control the development of individuals in a colony. (ants)
Osmotic movement of water in fresh and marine fish fresh – hypotonic marine – hypertonic
Parts of a fish anterior dorsal, posterior dorsal, caudal, anal, pelvic, pectoral, gill operculum, lateral line
ichthyology studying fish
4 characteristics of Phylum Chordata notochord, dorsal neural tube, pharnygeal slit, post anal tail
Sea squirt metamorphosis skin shrinks & pulls the notochord, forming adult tissue. rotates 180 degrees
Crown unattached end
How do starfish eat? attaches to mollusks, pull apart, pushes stomach into bivalve w/ digestive enzyme, digest & retracts.
Ametabolous metamorphosis without sexual maturity & body size is way different from young & old.
Caverian tubules In respiratory tree in sea cucumbers, comes out of anus to scare predators.
lancelet feeding filter feeders
Class Echinoidea sand dollars & sea urchins
Pinnules branch off of arms, featherlike
Subphylum Urochordata species tunicates, largest class. sea squirts.
Arms sea lillies & feather stars
Symmetry in echinoderms Penta radial
Respiratory tree functions how? anus opens up, water flows in anus pushes out water. 2 tubes branch off rectum.
Lateral canals branch of radial canals
Monoecious one sex
Alarm pheromone & example released to warn others of danger.
Parts of a hagfish 4 pairs of tennacles, sensory surround mouth, ventrolateral produce lots of slime
Johnston's organs & setae at the base of the antenae, setae vibrate when they hear certain frequencies
Shark teeth scales, lots of teeth, rows of them
Nares – used for? Nose-smell migration
Paddlefish found where? lakes & river of Mississippi river basin
Phylum Echinodermata All marine
Instar stages of insects life
Kin selection give up reproduction rights for survival of thos related to you.
Kingdom & Phylum & class of insects kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class:Insecta
Sex pheromone & example excite & attract opposite sex. horseshoe crabs & bees
Dessicate to dry out
Ossicles skeletal plates, mesoderm
Suction cups at ends of tube feet
Sea Urchin subtrate any hard surface they attach to
Oral hood projects over anterior end
Oral siphon inlet for water opposite of attached end
Cirri ciliated, hangs from oral hood, where food gets sorted
Calyx where crown meets stalk
Phylum Chordata examples vertebrae or closely related invertebrates, humans, fish
Class Holothuroidea cucumber with spines
Dioecious Males & females are different. Ex: Humans
Radial canals (s) branch off of ring canal
Class Chondrichthyes fish w/ cartilage
Class Myxini hag fish
Tracheae branch system of tubes throughout body, carbon + 0 2 exch.
Bilateral placement advantage tympanic organ on both sides lets it hear from both sides
Copraphage eat waste, garbage, herbivores, ditridivores, carnivores
2 factors influencing reproduction environmental conditions, health of mothers
Paddlefish rostrum long snouts, detect electrical fields
Bee Hive Social Structure four caste: workers, queens, soldiers, & drones. Queen secretes caste regulating.
Mimicry in insects look like a different animal, camo. butterfly
Electro-reception can sense electrical fields
Tube feet end of lateral canals
Fish adaptations for buoyancy livers have buoyant oils, use pelvic fins, tissue & bones are lighter, swim bladder with nematic sac.
Nymph step above larva, immature
Advantage of echinoderm symmetry odd number of legs, makes it stronger.
Aggregation pheromone & example produced to attract individuals to feeding or mating sights. flies
Shivering thermogenesis shivering to create body heat
Fish gas exchange pathway veins-carry deoxygenated blood- sinous venus- atrium-venticle-canus arteriorus – ventricle aorta – afferent brachial – gill capillaries – efferent brachial – dorsal aorta capillary
Class Actinopterygii sturgens, paddlefish
Caste social order, grouping with species
Ring Canal surrounds mouth of sea stars
Class Amphibia frogs, salamanders, noots, toads, land & water
Tertrapod four legs
Amphibia found everywhere but Antarctica
Amphibia species 6,000
Amphibia order Caudata: Salamander, 400 species
Amphibia legs unspecialized compared to frogs.
Amphibia found in caves, dark places, under rocks.
Family Salamandridae noots, in water
2 cm – 1.5 meters Convert! 2 cm – 150 cm, .78 in – 59.1 in .065ft – 4.92 ft
North Americas largest Hellbender
Fertilization inside female, coupulate.
Spermatophore pyramid of sperm
Spermatheca pouch where female stores sperm
Larva aquatic
metamorphosis Change, sometimes go under metamorphosis when pond dries out.
Order Gynophiona caecilians, snakelike
Order Gynophiona commonly called Caecilians
Gynophiona eyes covered by skin, nearly blind
Gynophiona behavior they burrow
Gynophiona fertilication internal
Order Anura frogs & toads, 4,000 species
Anura feet webbed, sticky
anura legs very muscular, specialized
Anura fertilization external
Anura eggs and larva tadpole
anura drastic metamorphosis loses tail & gills, aquatic, terra
Anura Family Bufonidae toads, skin is different, toads are dryer & wartier. Bufo americanus.
Family Ranidae frogs, smooth and wet
Amphibian properties: skin secretions antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer?
Amphibian skin no scales, no hair, epidermal layer.
Amphibian glandular lots of glands.
4 functions of Amphibians glands 1. secrete toxic chemicals, discourage predators. 2. secrete water to stay moist 3. poisonous neurotoxin 4. sticky stuff for mating
Amphibian Chromatophores color, cells on epidermis that control skin color.
Amphibian skull top is flat. can peek above water.
Vertebrae cervical first vertabrae, supports head.
Sacral vertebrae last trunk vertebrae
1st caudal vertebrae 1st tail bone
Vertebrae Zygaphoses where bone interlocks, prevents twisting.
body wall musculature v. fish fish has more body wall masculature. frogs have more masculature on appendages.
how do salamanders move? Pulls with front, back legs swing from side to side.
Anurans nutrition carnivores
Larva eat grass particles
salamanders & caecilians smell, olfactory
adult anurans sight, to capture prey. Capture w/ tongue w/ mucus glands.
Blood leaves conus arterious, 3 different directions Carotid: takes blood to head.
Systemic: through limbs.
Pulmonary: to lungs.
Gas exchange (anurans) occurs across skin, cutaneous.
Cutaneous respiration across the skin
Buccal pump ventilation mechanism
Buccopharyngeal ventilation occurs in mouth & pharynx.
Anurans temperture regulation ectothermic
ectothermic rely o environment to maintain body temperature. cold blooded.
to change body temperature anurans bask or burrow.
Brain of amphibians forebrain – olfactory
midbrain – usual
hindbrain – motor coordination homeostasis
sensory receptors lateral line important when tadpole
sight – accommodation focusing – have rods & cones
Anurans tympanic organs thin membrane
dessicate to dry out. stay in moist place. skin takes in water.

About the Author

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *