Vocab/definitions

Question Answer
interphase part of a cell’s life cycle when it is living, growing, and getting ready
to divid
Cell Cycle all the stages a cell goes through including phases of growth,
preparation for division, and division
asexual reproduction process of creating offspring or daughter cells using DNA from
only one parent, and the resulting offspring or daughter cells are
identical to the parent
cytokinesis when copies of cell organelles (except the nucleus) move into new
daughter cells
mitosis process division of the nucleus in which the nucleus divides once
to make identical nuclei for each of two identical daughter cells; a
type of asexual reproduction
chromosome what DNA is called during mitosis…DNA is wound up and easily
visible
Daughter Cell name for cells at the end of the cell division
offspring science term for children (relative to their parents)
fission type of asexual reproduction when an organism divides into two equal parts (the way bacteria reproduce)
budding type of asexual reproduction where a new organsim grows from the body part of the parent organsim (hydra is an example)
regeneration type of asexual reproduction where a whole new organism grows
from a piece of another organism (planarian worm is an example)
diploid adjective to describe a cell that has a set of matching
chromosomes from each parent (46 chromosomes in a human, 23
from mom and 23 from dad)
sexual reproduction process of creating offspring by combining the DNA in gametes
from two parents, and the resulting offspring are different than
either parent.
gamete general name for sex cell
sperm name for male sex cell
egg name for female sex cell
haploid adjective to describe a cell that has half the normal number of
chromosomes (one copy of each chromosome – usually a gamete)
fertilization process of sperm and egg cell joining
zygote the name for fertilized egg before it starts doing mitosis
meiosis process division of the nucleus in which the nucleus shuffles DNA
then divides twice to make four unique nuclei, one for each of four
haploid daughter cells called gametes; a type of sexual
reproduction
crossing over the “shuffling” of DNA that happens during meiosis
sex chromosones the 23rd chromosome pair that makes the difference between
males and females, XX for females, XY for males

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