Vocab Genetics / Heredity / Reproduction

Question Answer
HEREDITY the transmitting of characteristics from parent to offspring
GENETICS study of how traits are passed form parent to offspring
TRAIT characteristic of an organism
INHERITED TRAIT one that comes from the genes you received from your parents
DNA DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID – material found in cell's nucleus that determinest the genetic traits of an organism
CHROMOSOME structure located in the nucleus of a cell made of DNA; human cells have 46 chromosomes
GENE segment of DNA, found on chromosomes that determine the inheritance of a particular trait; the basic physical & functional unit of heredity
GENETIC VARIATION differences in traits among organisms of the same species
GENOME all the genes that an organism has
GENOTYPE genetic makeup of an organism; uses letter to represent genes present
PHENOTYPE physical expression of a trait, or the physical appearance of an organism
ALLELES alternate forms of a gene; or variations of a gene relating to the same trait; every organism has two alleles for each trait (one from mother / one from father)
DOMINANT the allele in a pair of alleles that determines the visible trait (phenotype) represented in the genotype with a CAPITAL letter
RECESSIVE an allele that is masked if a dominant allele is present; represented with a lowercase letter
HETEROZYGOUS having two different alleles for a trait; shown in genotype with one CAPITAL and one lowercase letter
HOMOZYGOUS having two of the same alleles for a trait; show in genotype with both leters as CAPITAL or lowercase
HYBRID AKA HETEROZYGOUS = an organism carrying both dominant and recessive alleles for the same trait
PURE AKA HOMOZYGOUS = an organism that carries 2 dominant or 2 recessive alleles for a given trait
INFLUENCE genetics: factors that have an effect on traits that are expressed
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS factors such as diet, exercise, pollution, etc. that influence the physical expression of genetic traits
REPRODUCE make more individuals of the same species from a parent organism or organisms
OFFSPRING product of reproduction
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION reproductive process involving one parent & producing offspring identical to the parent
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION reproductive process involving two parents whos genetic material is combined to produce a new organism with similar traits
BINARY FISSION ASEXUAL – one cell divides to form two identical cells: occurs in prokaryotic cells
BUDDING ASEXUAL – offspring grows out of the parent organism in a small bud or growth
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION ASEXUAL – one plant grows new plants that are identical genetically to the parent plant; can be in the form of a shoot or a cutting from an existing plant
REGENERATION ASEXUAL – the process of regrowing missing parts of a organism
FRAGMENTATION ASEXUAL – process of growing a complete organism from a fragment
CLONE an organism with identical DNA to parent organism
GAMETE SPECIALIZED sex cell with half the number of chromosomes as a typical body cell (egg in fe = 23; sperm in males = 23)
FERTILIZATION the union of sperm cell with egg cell
ZYGOTE fertilized egg
PROKARYOTIC cell's without a nucleus
EUKARYOTIC cells with a membrane bound nucleus
DIVERSE different

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