Proteins, energy and metabolism

Question Answer
Identify the chemical elements found in proteins Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen
Identify the ways amino acids can differ from each other The side group.
Each protein has amino group, acid group, hydrogen atom. It its the difference in side group differs proteins.
Identify the difference between dipeptide, tripeptide and a polypeptide Dipeptide- 2 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds.
Tripeptide- 3 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds.
Polypeptide-more than 3 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds.
Describe the steps in protein digestion HCl (stomache) begins to denature proteins & activate Pepsinogen->PEPSIN, hydrolyze protein, intestinal glands & pancreas release protease. RESULT: amino acids, dipeptides & tripeptides (hydrolyzed by dipeptidase & tripeptidase)
Identify the end products of protein digestion amino acids, dipeptides, tripeptides-> hydrolyzed by Dipeptidase and Tripeptidase. Released from polypeptide as they can be best absorbed.
Identify the possible metabolic fates for amino acids Anabolism-build up bigger molecules. Catabolism-break down molecules.
Be able to describe the basic process of protein synthesis in a cell The DNA is a template to make strands of messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA attaches to protein making Ribosomes. Transfer RNA (tRNA) collects amino acids. mRNA dictates the sequence amino acids attach to form proteins chains.
List and describe the roles of protein Building materials, enzymes, transporters (Lipoproteins), Fluid balance, Acid base balance (buffers), Antibodies, Fibrin for clotting, Vision
Identify the waste products from amino acid metabolism Ammonia, and Urea
Identify the recommendations for the % of the total kcals should come from protein and why this is a poor way to evaluate protein intake 10-35% .8g/kg
Know how the RDA for protein is established What was left over.
Amino acid, essential and nonessential, condionally essential *Amino acid- central carbon,amino group, acid group, hydrogen atoms & SIDE GROUP. *Essential-indispensable, must be provided by food. *Nonessential-dispensable, body makes Nitrogen when is present
Protein, Quality Protein Proteins are 50 or more amino acids.
Dipeptide, Tripeptide, Polypeptide Dipeptide- 2 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds. Tripeptide- 3 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds. Polypeptide-more than 3 amino acids bonded by peptide bonds. Proteins- 50 or more amino acids
Denaturation Uncoiling of protein, changes function, Denatured by acid & heat, cannot be reversed.
Enzyme Bring molecules together to make new molecules or break molecules apart.
Hydrochloric Acid Gastric acid found in the stomache. HCl.
Pepsinogen, Pepsin Pepsinogen- precursor, proenzyme. Polypeptide cannot do anything until it mixes with stomache acid cuasing it to be come active and into Pepsin, used to hydrolyze proteins
Protease Protein enzymes to hydrolize proteins (bonds broken through enzymes)
Transport Proteins In blood: Lipids (Lipoproteins), Oxygen (Hemoglobin), Vitamins and Minerals. Cell: Transfer compounds from one side to the other (Facilitated diffusion and active transport)
Hormones Chemical messengers.
Antibodies Large proteins in blood or fluids for the immune system.
Deamination, Transamination Deamination- removing the amino group. (ammonia and urea) Transaminations- transition of amino to another molecule.
Ammonia, Urea The waste product amino acids for energy, results of deamination,
Vegan, vegetarian Vegan- Someone that does not eat any animal products or biproducts. Vegetarian- Someone who does not eat any animal meat.
Omnivore Someone who eats both meat and plants.
Protein Quality Limiting amino acids while still reaching RDA and meetings all nutritional needs. Eat complete proteins. All neccessary AA in the right amounts.
Bioelectric Impedance Uses a low-intensity electrical current. The leaner the less resistance to current. Calculates % body fat.
Hydrodensitometer Weight on land vs weight submergered in water. Gives volume of body. Calulate density to calculate % body fat.
Central Obesity AKA Intra-abdominal fat. Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT), wraps around internal organs.
Intra-abdominal Fat AKA Central Obesity- Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) wraps around internal organs.
Body Mass Index (BMI) Healthy range is 18.4-24.9
Does nto take into acount body composition.
Thermogenesis Generation of heat, used to see how much energy the body is expending.
Calorimetry Food burned heats water and raises temp 1 degree.
Appetite The desire to eat but not always related. Related to enviromental influences.
Satiety/Satiation The sensation of being full. Result of stretch receptors in the stomach, nutrients in the small instines.
Hunger The body's biological response to the stomach emptying and the need for more food.
Hypothalamus Brain center that helps control appetite.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) The metabolic rate when the body is at complete rest. Such as sleeping. Maintains respirations, heart rate, temp. & other metabolic activities.
•Discuss some problems associated with being underweight, and some dietary strategies which are useful in treating this condition. People that are underweight (less than 18.5% BMI) are often malnutritioned and the body is or has broken down its own muscle for energy. In order to gain people often have to increase kcals by 750-800.
•Discuss reasonable dietary strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. Small changes, and moderate losses. 10% loss over 6 months, increase energy out, small decreases to energy in. Eating nutrient dense foods.
•Discuss the surgical approaches used to treat severe obesity. Gastric bypass-small stomach pouch staples, outlet into small intestines later.
Gastric banding-reduced opening into stomach, but still using stomach, adjusted by port under skin.
•Identify changes in body composition that can be associated with changes in body weight. As the body weight increases the number of fat cells multiply (hyperplasia) and increase in size (hypertrophy). When weight decreases the number of cells do not dreases even though the size may. Also, there may be loss of lean muscle.
•Discuss the causes of obesity, including the genetic as well as environmental influences. Genetic-Leptin deficience (Leptin promotes -E balance, Ghrelin-[growling] Rises in blood before a meal promoting hunger. Promotes +E balance. Fat- White (Oxidation->ATP) Brown (Oxidation->heat)
Enviromental-large portions and inactivity.
•Discuss some popular fad diets, and why these may have a negative impact on health. Low Carb diet- Decreasing complex carbs, decreases glucose in the body which promotes break down of the body's amino acids. Increasing Urea output, hard on kidneys. High protein diets have same output.Very low kcal diets decrease BMR and malnutrition
•List the risk factors that are associated with excess body weight and excess body fat. Early death from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer
•List the factors that influence energy expenditure. Discuss how this expenditure can be estimated. kcals spent vs. kcals in, body mass promotes more kcals to be spent during physical activity. Promotes changes to body composition to lean mass, and speeds up BMR
•Describe hunger, appetite, satiation and satiety and describe how each influences food intake. Need for food triggers hunger (growling, pains etc) appetite (desire to eat) aids in what we eat (also, if we eat when we are not hungry or how much we eat) Satiety tells us we are full and we stop. Enviromental factors can play into this as well.
•Identify the factors influencing BMR and the effect each factor has on basal metabolism. Fasting/starvation (decreases), Lean muscle (increases), age (decreases), malnurishment (decreases), weight loss (decreases)
•Identify factors that influence food consumption. Biological- hunger, empty stomach, gastric contractions, GI hormones triggering need for food.
*Appetite- Endorphins trigger desire for food, sensory influences.
•List the methods used to determine the kilocalorie sat_flash_1 of food. *Break apart C-C bonds & C-H bonds in E providing nutrients->H2O & CO2
*Measure how much eat it released.
*Use Bomb Calorimeter (Food on fire, heats water 1 degree.
•Demonstrate an understanding of how excess of any of the energy providing nutrients can be converted to triglycerides and stored All can be broken down to pyruvates and stored as fatty acids when the orginal supply is full.
•Outline the steps for producing energy as ATP from glucose, triglycerides and amino acids *Glucose(6C)->2 Pyruvates(3C)->Acetyle CoA->TCA->ATP!
Identify ways to measure energy used. Measure O2 consumption, measure CO2 produced, or heat produced.

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