Interpreting the Fossil Record

Question Answer
evolution gradual change;the belief that the universe and all that is in it originated by chance through natural processes over billions of years
cosmic evolution chance origin of the universe as whole
biological evolution/organic evolution gradual development of life on Earth,generally from simple organisms to complex ones
special creation God's work of calling the universe and all that is in it into existence ex nihilo(out of nothing) and making complex living organisms out of simple components
concept of special creation and the concept of evolution must be accepted by faith
theistic evolution modified form of evolutionary hypothesis which attempts to reconcile the Bible and evolution
science cannot make authoritative statements about the origin of the earth
principle of uniformity principle that states that the natural laws in operation today have existed throughout the earth's history
uniformitarianism false belief that the natural processes we see today,at the rates we see today,are solely responsible for shaping the earth's crust in the past
Charles Lyell Father of Modern Geology;the idiot who popularized uniformitarianism
Charles Darwin popularized the idea of evolution;published "The Origin of the Species"
Evolution is a concept that attempts to free man from God and his responsibility to his Creator
paleontology study of fossils
fossils remains/impressions of plants,animals,and humans preserved sedimentary rock
petrified fossils animals buried in water and sediments;minerals in the mud replaced or strengthened the structure of fossil preserving it
mold fossils formed when mud buries a plant or animal and quickly hardens,leaving a hollow mold,or impression,in the rock organism decays
resin fossils formed when leaves and other plant parts, insects,or frogs and other smaller animals are trapped in large masses of tree sap,which later harden into a rock-like substance known as amber
print fossil animal tracks,outlines leaves and feathers, and imprints skin mud preserved when mud hardened into rock;can reveal design bird's feathers, structure leaves and plants,even pattern dinosaurs hide
whole specimen fossils entire animal preserved nearly intact by freezing,desiccation(drying out),or entrapment in a bog or pit
geologic column hypothetical time scale of earth's history based evolutionary assumptions fossil record
eras four major divisions which cover several hundred million years
periods smaller units of time which are from eras
epochs which subdivide periods
four major eras Precambrian era, Paleozoic era, Mesozoic era, and Cenozoic era
index fossil fossil considered characteristic of specific period therefore used assign ages rock layers
the first problem with the geologic column is that the succession fossils it indicates occurs nowhere in the world
geologic column not really a description of order of rocks and fossils in crust;rather, it is a hypothetical arrangement of fossils and rocks according to evolutionary assumptions
second problem with geologic column is that it is based on the very assumption it attempts to prove
radiometric dating technique used to assign dates to rocks and fossils based on decay of radiometric elements
although the final amount of element in the sample is easily measured there is no way to measure how much of the element was in the sample originally
it can be said that radioactive dates are largely determined by the assumptions of the person doing the dating
another problem with the geologic column is that fossils are commonly found in the "wrong" order in apparently undisturbed strata
anomalies "misplaced" fossils;fossils found in "wrong" order in apparently undisturbed rock strata
coelacanth unusual "living fossil",once thought to be "missing link" between fish and amphibians,but now recognized as true deep fish;several have been caught alive
Noah's ark is 450 ft long,75 ft wide, and 45 ft high
ICE AGE historic period widespread glaciation, probably shortly after Flood,during which glaciers spread over third earth's land area sea level about 400 ft lower than at present
the very existence of a fossil implies catastrophic burial
polystrate fossils fossil extending through multiple layers of rock strata
transitional form hypothetical form that would show signs evolving from one kind organism into another; "missing link"
if evolution were true there would be many fossils of intermediate forms
the fact that no transitional forms have been found is the greatest evidence against evolution
Seymouria an unusual fossil amphibian once thought to "missing link" between amphibians & reptiles but now recognized as true amphibian
Archeopteryx unusual fossil bird once thought to be "missing link" between reptiles an birds,but now recognized as true bird
Eohippus dog-sized fossil mammal once thought to be the ancestor of the horse
natural selection idea fittest and strongest of each species are more likely to survive and reproduce than members that are weaker or less fit
mutations tend to be harmful,not helpful
mutations tend to be an animal less likely to survive
punctuated equilibrium hypothesis idea that new organisms arise as result of drastic environmental changes,which cause species radically change just few generations
there are no "missing links" in the supposed chain of human evolution
Dryopithicus a fragmented fossil which evolutionists thought to be the ancestor of humans and apes, but is now considered to be ape
Ramapithicus a fossil with fragmented skull parts is thought by evolutionists to be the ancestor of humans and apes but is actually 100% ape
Australopithecus afarensis also known as "Lucy";thought by evolutionists to be the first "links" in the chain of supposed human descent and is thought to walk upright but now agreed be extinct chimpanzee
Australopithecus africanus "Taung child";thought by evolutionists to be ancestral to human but is now realized 100% ape after human skulls are found near it
Australopithecus anamensis thought by evolutionists to be ancestral to humans but is discovered to be more chimpanzee-like and now passed as extinct ape
Homo habilis thought by evolutionists to be an mixture between man and ape but is discovered to be smaller than "Lucy" and is 100% ape
Homo erectus "Java man":"Peking man";thought by evolutionists to be ape-man but are now shown to be 100% human
Neanderthal man thought by evolutionists to be humans with ape-like origins,but scientists discovered it was rickets while more bones were found,so Neanderthal man is 100% human.Neanderthal man also has larger brains
Cro-Magnon man thought by evolutionists to be man's most recent ancestor but is now realized as 100% man;like the Neanderthal man,Cro-Magnon man had larger brains
The creation vs evolution debate is not all about what science says,but about what man believes
evolution fails as a hypothesis because of lack of transitional forms

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