Blood + lymphatic Exam prep

Question Answer
plasma the fluid part of blood, that consists of water and its dissolved constituents including proteins, electrolytes, sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, ammino acids, hormones, and vitamins.
emigration / diapedesis the passage of blood cells through capillary walls into the tissues
Albumins heartcoagulable watersoluble protein's that occur in blood plasma or serum, muscle, the whites of eggs, milk, and other animal substances, and in many plant tissues and fluids
Globulins any of a class of simple proteins that occur widely in plant or animal tissue
Fibrinogen a plasma protein that is produced in the liver and is converted into fibrin during blood clot formation
Serum the clear yellowish fluid that remains from blood plasma after fibrinogen, prothrobrin, and other clotting factors that have been removed by clot formation
Hematocrit total blood count
Hemopoiesis the process by which formed elements of blood develop
cytokines any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins (as interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon) that are secreted by cells especially of the immune system
biliverdin a green pigment C33H34N4O6 that occurs in bile and is an intermediate in the degradation of hemoglobin heme groups to bilirubin
bilirubin a reddish yellow pigment C33H36N4O6 that occurs especially in bile and blood and causes jaundice if accumulated in excess
emigration / diapedesis the passage of blood cells through capillary walls into the tissues
phagocytosis the ingestion of microbes or other particles such as cellular debris
chemotaxis movement of an organism or cell in relation to chemical agents
lysozyme a bactericidal enzyme found in tears, saliva, and perspiration
hemostasis the stopping of blood
hemorrhage a copious discharge of blood from the blood vessels
anticoagulants a substance (as a drug) that hinders coagulation
Agglutinogen an antigen whose presence results in the formation of an agglutinin
agglutinin a substance (as an antibody) producing agglutination
universal donor can give blood to any blood type
universal recipient a person who can receive all blood
hemolysis breakdown of RBCs
finger stick an instance of pricking the skin of a finger to obtain blood from a capillary
venipuncture surgical puncture of a vein especially for the withdrawal of blood or for administration of intravenous fluids or drugs
hypoxia a deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues of the body
leukocytosis formation of WBC
leukopenia a condition in which the number of white blood cells circulating in the blood is abnormally low and which is most commonly due to a decreased production of new cells
complete blood count (CBC) a blood count that includes separate counts for red and white blood cells
differential blood count includes different counts for each kind of WBC
pulmonary embolism embolism of a pulmonary artery or one of its branches that is produced by foreign matter
What kind of tissue is blood Connective tissue
What serves as the matrix of blood Plasma (Protein fibers and ground substance that has H2O)
What are the main functions of blood Transportation, regulation, and protection
What is distributed by blood O2, CO2, heat, hormones, waste, nutrients, etc.
What is regulated by blood PH, temp, water sat_flash_1, and electrolytes (salts)
What protective functions does blood serve It protects against disease (pathogens) and fluid loss.
What are possible colors of blood and what do they indicate The colors are Dark red and bright red. Dark red indicates no oxygen in the blood, it has not been oxygenated, and it is Venus blood. Bright red blood indicated that is has oxygen in it and it has been oxygenated.
What is the relationship between viscosity and flow Viscosity is the resistance to flow, the more viscous the less the flow
Relatively, how viscous is blood; and what accounts for and affects blood's viscosity It is more viscous than H2O. The red blood cell count accounts for the viscosity of the blood there for if the red blood cell count rises greatly the viscosity will be affected and the same is the RBC count lowers.
What does pH measure and what is the normal pH range for blood it measures the amount of acid/ alkaline in a solution. The normal pH for blood is7.35
What is the normal temperature for blood 38 degrees C. (100.4 F)
What is a normal blood volume for males and for females ? 5 L
What are the two main components of blood Blood plasma and formed elements (cells and cell fragments).
Approximately what percentage of blood is formed elements and what percentage is plasma 45 % formed elements and 55 % blood plasma.
What is plasma and what are its components water and proteins. ….. Albumins, globulins, fibrinogens (and other clotting proteins), hormones, enzymes, and other transport proteins. Plasma also contains nutrients, electrolytes, vitamins, gases, and non
What is plasma and what are its components Plasma is water and proteins. Proteins are Albumins, globulins, fibrinogens (and other clotting proteins), hormones, enzymes, and other transport proteins. Plasma also contains nutrients, electrolytes, vitamins, gases, and non
What is albumin plasma protein that is the smallest but most numerous in blood plasma.
Where are albumins made and what do they do It is produced by the liver and its function is to help transport lipid soluables. It also plays a role in H2O balance by increasing osmotic pressure.
What is osmotic pressure The maximum pressure that develops in a solution separated solvent.
What are globulins and what are some of their functions antibodies that are produced by the liver and plasma cells (which develop from B lymphocytes). They help attack viruses and bacteria. Alpha and beta globulins transport iron, lipids, and fat
Where are clotting proteins produced they are produced by the liver and plasma cells (which develop from B lymphocytes). They help attack viruses and bacteria. Alpha and beta globulins transport iron, lipids, and fat
What are the 2 most important clotting proteins in plasma fibrinogen and prothrombin
What are some nutrients found in plasma simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol.
What is an electrolyte and what are some electrolytes found in plasma any of the ions that in a biological fluid regulate or affect most metabolic processes
What are some wastes found in plasma non
What are formed elements they are cells, ….in this they are erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes.
What is the size and shape of a red blood cell; and what advantages does biconcavity confer a biconcave disc with a diameter of ? 8 ┬Ám. They are strong and flexible, which allows them to deform without rupturing as they squeeze through narrow capillaries.
How many organelles are found within RBCs; and what is the primary sat_flash_1 of RBCs this lacks a nucleus and other organelles and can neither reproduce nor carry on extensive metabolic activities. this is about 33 % hemoglobin molecules within the cytosol.
What is the function of hemoglobin this an oxygen carrying protein which is a pigment that gives whole blood its red color. Hemoglobin plays a key role in transporting O2 and CO2.
What is globin this is a protein a hemoglobin molecule consists of.
What is heme and how many hemes are there per hemoglobin this is a ring like non
How many O2 molecules are carried per hemoglobin There is an iron ion at the center of each heme ring that can combine with one of these molecule, which means hemoglobin can carry how many of these molecules.
What is the difference between oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin) Oxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin loosely combined with O2 that it releases to the tissues. Deoxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin without O2, hemoglobin forms an unstable reversible bond with O2.
What is a hemocytoblast and what is hemopoiesis this is a stem cell for blood cellular elements, a component to produce all types of blood cells. this is the process by which the formed elements of blood develop.
What is erythropoiesis this is the production of RBCs. Erythropoietin is a hormone made in the kidneys and liver that stimulates red blood cell formation.
Where do hemopoiesis and erythropoiesis occur Red bone marrow is the primary site for what in the last three months before birth and continues to be the source after birth and throughout life. what starts in the red bone marrow with a precursor cell proerythropoiesis
What are reticulocytes and what does a higher than usual number of them indicates these are mature red blood cell and a higher than usual number of these is called polycythemia. Polycythemia can be due to hypoxia, high altitude, dehydration, and blood doping.
How long do RBCs live and where do they die They have a 120 day life span. Ruptured ones are removed from circulation and destroyed by fixed macrophages in the spleen and liver.
What happens to the globin part of hemoglobin this is broke down into AA, which can be reused to synthesize other proteins.
What happens to the iron in hemoglobin; and what are the roles of transferrin and ferritin. Iron is removed from the heme and attaches to transferrin, which is a plasma protein transporter for the iron in the bloodstream; it then detaches from transferrin and attaches to ferritin, which is an iron
What is bilirubin and what role does bile play in bilirubin excretion this is one of the end products of hemoglobin breakdown in the hepatocytes and is excreted as a waste material in bile.
Approximately what percentage of formed elements are leukocytes (WBCs) this account for about 1 % of blood.
Where are WBCs formed and where are most of them found these are formed in the bone marrow and most of these leave the blood stream and collect at sites of pathogen invasion or inflammation.
What is a basic function of WBCs to defend the body against infection and disease by ingesting foreign material and cellular debris, by destroying infectious agents and cancer cells, or by producing antibodies.
What are the two classes of WBCs and what are the leukocytes in each class The two classes are granular and agranular depending on whether or not they have chemical
What are the characteristics of neutrophils and what do they do They are granular leukocytes, most numerous (about 60%), they have a multilobed nuleus, they release bacterialcidic substances, and are the 1st responders to infection. They can do the following: diapedesis, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis.
What is an alternate name for neutrophils Older neutrophils are often called polymorphs and younger ones are called bands.
What is diapedesis; and what is positive chemotaxis this is the passage of blood cells through capillary walls through the tissues. this is when different chemicals released by microbes and inflamed tissues attract phagocytes.
What are eosinophils they are granular leukocytes, which account for 3% or the WBCs.
What are the characteristics of eosinophils They have large red
What do eosinophils do they modulate the effects of histamines and fight parasitic worms. A high number means allergic reaction or parasitic worm infection; a low number means drug toxicity or stress.
What are basophils they are granular leukocytes that account for 1% of the WBCs.
What are the characteristics of basophils they have large round purple granuals.
What do basophils do They release histamines in allergic reactions to intensify the inflammatory response. Basophils perform diapedesis to become mast cells.
What are plasma cells a lymphocyte that is a mature antibody secreting B cell. They are the cells responsible for the production of antibodies.
What are antibodies a protein made by the immune system against a specific antigen. AKA immunoglobulin
What are lymphocytes It is an agranular leukocyte that accounts for 30 % of WBC.
What are the characteristics of lymphocytes has a round or slightly indented nucleus. The cytoplasm stains dark blue, can be as small as 6
What are the classes of lymphocytes The classes are B cells and T cells.
What do lymphocytes do They help carry out cell mediated and anti
What are monocytes agranular leukocytes that account for 6% of WBCs.
What are the characteristics of monocytes They have a horse shoe shaped nucleus; the cytoplasm is blue grey and has a foamy appearance.
What do monocytes do They perform diapedesis, in the blood they become macrophages. They can be fixed or wandering. These play a big role in phagocytosis! A high number indicates a viral or fungal infection.
What is leukopoiesis and where does it occur It is the formation of WBCs,
What are platelets and what do they do They are fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm, which is released from the bone marrow into the blood. That assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium. The platelets form a plug and plug leaks.
What are the characteristics of platelets Cell fragments that live for 5
What is thrombopoiesis and where does it occur the formation of a clot in an unbroken blood vessel, usually a vein.
What is a normal number of platelets per microliter of blood 150,000
What is an alternate name for platelets Thrombocyte is the alternate name
What is hemostasis and of what processes does it consist stopping of bleeding by hemostatic agent. It starts with vascular spasms, then platelet plug formation, next is blood clotting, followed by clot reaction, and then clot dissolution.
What is and what are the effects of vascular spasm It's when the smooth muscle in the walls of damaged vessels contract. It reduces blood loss for several minutes to several hours.
What is a platelet plug mass accumulation of platelets.
How does platelet plug formation occur they adhere to collegen fibers where the damaged cells are. The platelets enlarge and produce extentions. The platelets then release phospholipids, calcium, ADP, and platelet factors. Platelets gather and stick together forming a plug.
What prevents platelet plugs from growing excessively large Serotonin and thromboxane function as vasoconstrictors. This decreases blood flow through the injured vessel, so there is not there is not a constant flow of platelets coming though.
What is coagulation It is the process of gel formation in a series of chemical reactions.
What are the final steps of coagulation The final steps are Prothrombinase converts prothrombin (plasma protein made by the liver) into thrombin. Thrombin then converts soluble fibrinogen (another plasma protein made by the liver) into insoluble fibrin. Fibrin forms the threads of the clot.
Where are clotting factors produced they are produced in the liver.
What metal and what vitamin are both necessary for coagulation Calcium ions
What is the extrinsic path of blood clotting This path is found on the surface of tissue cells. Its trigger is called tissue factor (TF). The release of TF leads to the formation of clotting factor X. This is a fast process, it takes seconds.
What is the intrinsic path of blood clotting This path is found on the inside of tissue cells. Its trigger is collagen and platelet phospholipids, this causes the formation or activation of clotting factor X. This is a slow process, it takes minutes.
What is the value of having two clotting pathways If one doesn't work you have another.
What is clot retraction and how does it occur When a blood clot becomes smaller and draws the edges of a broken blood vessel together, this involves the shortening of fibrin threads and the squeezing out of excess serum.
What is fibrinolysis and how does it occur It is the dissolving of a clot.
What are plasminogen and plasmin it is the precursor to plasmin found in blood plasma and serum. It is an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of clots.
What can promote coagulation Injury to the blood vessel has exposed blood to proteins that initiate changes to blood platelets.
What can retard coagulation Warfin and Coumadin prevent vitamin K recycling, citrates remove calcium from plasma, and heparin prevents clotting.
What are the functions of the lymphatic system The functions are to return tissue fluids to the blood and filter it, transport dietary lipids, and carry out immune responses.
What are the different lymph vessels they are lymph capillaries and lacteals.
What do lymph capillaries do They unite to form larger lymphatic vessels. They allow interstitial fluids in
What are lacteals and where are they found lymphatic capillaries found in the small intestines.
What is the purpose of valves in lymph vessels they prevent backflow of fluid.
What are the roles of skeletal muscles and respiration in moving lymph ____ ______ contractions compress lymphatic vessels and force lymph towards the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins.
What are lymph nodes, Where would you find them and what do they do any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph passing through the node
What are the different tonsils, Where are they found and what do they do the pharyngeal (adenoids), 2 palatine, and 2 lingual. They function in immunity, with B
What is the spleen, Where is it and what does it do the largest single mass of the lymphatic tissue. It is located between the stomach and the diaphragm. it contains sinuses which contain macrophages, plays a role in the final destruction of RBC, it filters blood, produces B
What is the thymus, Where is it and what does it do it is the primary lymphatic organ along with red bone marrow. It produces lymphocytes and is responsible for the maturation of T
What is immunity It is the state of being resistant to injury, particularly by poisons, foreign proteins, and invading pathogens.
What is meant by non specific external immunity,What does it consist of
How does skin repel pathogens,What role does keratin play in repelling pathogens It can many layers of closely packed keratinized cells in the epidermis, this provides a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microbes. Periodic shedding of the epidermal cells also helps by removing microbes at the skins surface.
What role do sebum, sweat, mucous, saliva, tears, and cerumen play in repelling pathogens Sebum forms a protective layer over the skin. Sweat and tears contain lysozyme which can break down the walls of certain bacteria. Mucous traps microbes and foreign substances.
What role do cilia play in repelling pathogens Hairs that trap and filter microbes.
Where are lysozymes found and what role do they play in repelling pathogens A bactericidal enzyme found in tears, saliva, and perspiration.
How do urination, diarrhea, and vomiting help prevent pathogens from entering the body In response to some microbial toxins the body rapidly expels many of the microbes.
What is meant by non specific internal immunity, what does it consist of
What WBCs provide this innate defense T
What is phagocytosis the engulfing and usually the destruction of particulate matter by phagocytes
What are macrophages, Where would you find wandering (free) and fixed macrophages a phagocytic tissue cell of the immune system that may be fixed or freely motile, is derived from a monocyte, functions in the destruction of foreign antigens (as bacteria and viruses), and serves as an antigen
What is inflammation, What are the five signs of inflammation, How does it occur and of what value is it response to cellular injury that is marked by capillary dilatation, leukocyte infiltration, redness, heat, pain, swelling, and often loss of function and that serves as a mechanism initiating the elimination of noxious agents and of damaged tissue
What is interferon, What cells produce it and what is its role in viral infections It is an antimicrobial substance that is an internal defense in the second line of defense. They protect uninfected host cells from viral infection.
What is the complement, Where are these proteins produced and how do they destroy pathogenic cells the thermolabile group of proteins in normal blood serum and plasma that in combination with antibodies causes the destruction especially of particulate antigens (as bacteria and foreign blood corpuscles).
What are antigens, What is the difference between self and foreign (nonself) antigens, What substances make good antigens Anything foreign to the body that causes the production of certain ABYs. The self
What is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) It is transmembrane glycoproteins that help T
What are antibodies (immunoglobulin's) proteins made by the immune system against a specific antigen.
What is the role of the antigen binding site of the antibodies
What are the five different antibody classes, and what is the role of each; 1. IgG 2. IgA 3. IgM 4. IgG 5.IgE ___ most abundant Aby in the blood,by enhancing phagocytosis and neutralizing toxins. It can cross the placenta.___ Found mainly in sweat, tears, saliva, mucus, breast milk, and gastrointestinal secretions. Small quanities are in the blood 10 /15% and lym
What are the differences between active and passive immunity With _____ ______ there are no memory cells so the immunity is only temporary unlike active.
What are the differences between natural and artificial immunity With _____ you make the ABYs, with _____ you receive the ABYs.
What is passive natural immunity A temporary immunity by the transfer of antibodies. An example is the transfer of IgG's from mother to fetus across placenta. The mother produces the antibodies.
What is passive artificial immunity, What are examples, Who produces the antibodies A temporary immunity by being injected with antibodies. Receiving serum from an exposed animal for something that you have. The animal produces the ABYs.
What is active natural immunity, How does it occur and who produces the antibodies The formation of ABYs after exposure to a microbe or antigen. You produce them.
What is active artificial immunity, How do you get this immunity, Who produces the antibodies, What is a vaccination Antigens introduces during vaccination stimulate cell

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