Bio – Sem 1 Vocab Final Review

Question Answer
Theory An explanation based on many types of evidence
Hypothesis A prediction that can be tested
Variable Anything that may be changed in an experiment
Macromolecule A polymer made up of smaller simple monomers. The 4 macromolecules that make up living organisms are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Monomer Smaller molecules used to build a macromolecule
Polymer A large molecule build from many repeating smaller molecules (monomer)
Protein/polypeptide Polymer made up of many amino acids; Macromolecules including structural building blocks and enzymes
Amino Acid Small molecules used to make proteins. Amino acids have an amino group (NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH)
Nucleic Acid Macromolecule used a the genetic material for living cells Example: DNA & RNA
Nucleotides Smaller molecules (monomer) used to make nucleic acids. Made up of a phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base
Lipids Macromolecule used for long term energy storage, biological membranes and for chemical messengers
Fatty Acid Long hydrophobic chains of carbons and hydrogens used to make lipids
Carbohydrate Energy storing molecules including monosaccharides and polysaccharides
Monosaccharides Simple carbohydrates (monomer) used to build polysaccharides Example: sugar, glucose
Polysaccharides Large molecule (polymer) made from simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides)
Enzyme A type of protein that catalyzes or speeds up a chemical reaction (
Activation Energy The amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Denatured When a protein is changed because of a change in the pH or temperature of the solution the enzyme is in
Decomposer Bacteria or fungi that break down dead or decaying plants and animals
Producer Organisms that are able to make their own food by using the energy from the environment, also known as autotroph
Succession The change in an environment in which communities of organisms are replaced by different communities.
Lichen A moss-like organism that is the first to populate a new environment. A pioneer species that helps to create soil from bare rock.
Respiration Process by which organisms release carbon dioxide and take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
Immigration The movement of individuals into an area, which causes the population to increase
Emigration The movement of individuals out of an area which causes the population to decrease
Consumer Organisms that must get their energy by eating or consuming another organism, also known as heterotroph
energy pyramid A diagram that shows the amount of energy passed in each trophic level of a food chain or food web. 10% of consumed energy is passed on to the organism in the next level.
trophic level The position an organism occupies in a food chain such as producers, herbivores, primary carnivore.
biodiversity The sum total of different species found in an area or ecosystem
ecology Study of relationships among living organisms and their interactions with their physical environments.
population Individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
community All the different populations of organisms that are living in the same area together
ecosystem All the living things in the area, along with the nonliving things in the area
nitrogen fixation The ability of bacteria to use nitrogen gas from the air and change it to a form of nitrogen that can be used by plants
carrying capacity The natural limit of a species the environment can support. The ecosystem’s ability to sustain a stable population where the birthrate equals the deathrate
transpiration Phase of the water cycle in which water is released from plants into the atmosphere.
Prokaryote Type of cell that lacks a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Ex: bacterial cells
Eukaryote Type of cell containing a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Ex: plant and animal cells
Virus Simple structure consisting of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. NOT a cell, requires a host cell to replicate.
Nucleus The genetic material of the cell surrounded by a plasma membrane. Known as the control center of the cell.
Organelle Little organ. Does a specialized job for the cell. In Eukaryotes, many are surrounded by a membrane.
Ribosome Cell organelle that synthesizes (makes) proteins. Is NOT surrounded by a membrane
Rough Endoplasmic Membrane bound organelle. Responsible for modifying proteins made by the ribosomes attached to it.
Smooth Endoplasmic Membrane bound organelle that produces phospholipids to be used by the cell. Manufactures, modifies, and detoxifies lipids.
Golgi Apparatus Membrane bound organelle. Modifies, packages, and prepares proteins for export out of the cell.
Mitochondria Organelle that has two sets of membranes. Converts sugar (glucose) into ATP. Undergoes the process of cellular respiration.
Chloroplast Organelle that has two sets of membranes. Uses the energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide to produce glucose. Undergoes the process of photosynthesis.
Cell Membrane Encloses all cells (plant, animal, & bacteria). Structure consists of two layers of phospholipids. It regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Semi permeable When a cell membrane allows some materials to pass (diffuse) through but not others.
Diffusion The movement of materials from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Does NOT require energy.
Osmosis The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Active Transport The movement of materials across a cell membrane from an area of low concentration to high concentration. DOES require energy (ATP)
Protein Macromolecule that facilitate biological processes. They are created by ribosomes, modified by the ER, then packaged and exported out of the cell by the golgi apparatus.
Photosynthesis The production of carbohydrates (glucose) and oxygen using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide. Only done in the chloroplast. Light energy from the sun is absorbed by the pigment chlorophyll in the chloroplast.
Cellular Respiration The breakdown of carbohydrates (glucose) into ATP (energy molecule) Only done in the mitochondria. Oxygen is required to produce ATP efficiently.
Homeostasis The body’s ability to maintain a constant internal environment.
Respiratory system Provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide for the body
Nervous system Identifies changes and controls body responses to changes in the body’s internal and external environments, influences all other body systems.
Circulatory system Transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to body cells; removes waste from cells.
Muscular system Allows movement of the body due to stimuli from the nervous system (nerve impulses) and endocrine system (hormones).
Sensory neurons Carry impulses from outside and inside the body to the brain and spinal cord.
Motor neurons Carry impulses from the spinal cord/brain to muscles
Antibodies Y-shaped proteins that bind to specific antigens found on foreign particles.
Antigen Carbohydrates and proteins found on foreign particles that start the immune response.
Vaccination The injection of a weakened form of a pathogen that produces antibodies against that specific pathogen.
Negative feedback A mechanism that produces an opposite response to the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis. For example: full fat cells release Leptin to suppress hunger after a meal.
Reflex arc Sense organ > sensory neuron > spinal cord > motor neuron >muscle
Positive feedback A mechanism that brings about an even greater change in the same direction as the stimulus. For example: labor contractions during childbirth

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